Why Silicon Valley Needs Black People, and Vice Versa, by Gerald Harris

This post is written by, and posted with permission from Gerald Harris, Principle of the Quantum Planning Group, Inc. Email your thoughts to Gerald Harris at gerald@artofquantumplanning.com, and find him on LinkedIn at https://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=32841606&trk=nav_responsive_tab_profile.

In the spring of 2009, I met Diishan Imira, a unique, 27-year-old, biracial African-American man with a deep entrepreneurial spirit. Diishan had just returned from two years in China, where he taught English to grade school children and picked up their language. He had already started and closed two businesses importing goods from China into the United States, one for running shoes and the other for furniture. Now the CEO of Mayvenn, Inc., one of the fastest-growing businesses funded by 500 startups in Silicon Valley, Diishan has become one of my closest friends. I had the honor of coaching and supporting him as he formed Mayvenn, and I am an investor in the company. Mayvenn is still in its early growth phases, but I am confident that over the next few years, it will emerge as one of the biggest African-American success stories in Silicon Valley (For more about Mayvenn, visit http://www.mayvenn.com.).

While working with Diishan, I also served for four years on the National Advisory Board of the National Society of Black Engineers (NSBE), whose 31,000-plus members include some of the best and brightest young minds in Black America. These young men and women were being trained at some of the top universities in the United States and were being hired by some of the nation’s top companies. From the perspective of this experience, my background as a futurist and scenario planner, and my residence in San Francisco, where I see and feel the tech community in action, I have come to the view that Silicon Valley needs more African-American minds and hearts, as it evolves, and that the black community needs more of what Silicon Valley has to offer. Here are my key thoughts.

Five Reasons Why Silicon Valley Needs African Americans

  1. Lucrative Market

African-American consumers spend more than $1 trillion annually. This is a staggering sum of money that is largely ignored by Valley entrepreneurs. Some of this spending is, of course, being picked up, as African Americans consume just like other Americans, using Uber, buying from iTunes, listening to Pandora and buying iPads and iPhones. But targeting the African-American consumer can prove to be lucrative, as Hollywood, the fast food industry and others have figured out (Popeye’s Chicken anyone?).

  1. Product Promotion

African-American consumers are style-setters and pacesetters in many industries. Imagine the music or fashion industry without black people: no hip hop, no blues, , no fancy braided hair styles (being adapted by Iggy Azalea), no jazz (I could go on.). Black athletes and other black celebrities are prominent promoters of a wide range of products aimed at young people of all races — clothing, including athletic shoes; energy drinks; nutritional supplements and more — and could fill the same roles in the marketing of tech products and services.

  1. Product Improvement

African Americans (and other “minorities”) provide unique perspectives and approaches that can augment products and services so they best serve the needs of their own communities and often other communities as well.). African Americans have long been trend setters in fashion, music and entertainment in general.  We have led the way in creating publications for our communities including Ebony and Essence magazines and now have  groups which speak to our concerns on Twitter and Facebook.  Silicon Valley should learn from these examples and create more customized products h   while seeking input from more black customers to serve their needs better and more profitably.

  1. Enhanced Creativity

Black perspectives combined with perspectives of others can produce insights and ideas that only emerge from a mix of diverse viewpoints. I know this well from leading groups tasked with creating future scenarios. I am fascinated by how many racially integrated bands —  The Black Eyed Peas, Bruce Springsteen, Eminem and others — create globally successful music. Silicon Valley, likewise, may gain greater success, and avoid some spectacular investment failures, by expanding their creative teams beyond the white guys from Stanford University who regularly appear.

  1. Political Support

Support from blacks in the political arena could prove useful to the Valley over the long term, as it runs into more restrictions, regulations and barriers. Political attacks will grow with the influence of Silicon Valley firms, as they change the basics of how we live our lives. Airnb and Uber are transforming our use of our homes and cars. Other firms will change how we receive medical care or get an education. To the extent these companies impact our lifestyles, they will face political consequences. If Black Americans are being served by and benefiting from this change, we might make good political supporters.

Five Reasons Why Black America Needs Silicon Valley

  1. Better Products and Services

Silicon Valley is best at pointing out many parts of our economy that are out of date, inefficient and stuck in old paradigms. These archaic patterns of operating are costing African Americans just as they are costing others. We, too, will benefit from cheaper, faster and better products and services. Other black men may find, as I do, that Uber makes it much easier to hire a ride in New York City. Booking my vacations is cheaper and better with Airnb. I can listen to more of the music I like at lower cost by streaming on Spotify or Pandora. What Mayvenn is doing for black hairstylists by bringing them into the digital economy is an emerging story with great potential. Products and services are sure to emerge that can help black people improve our health and education, using digital technology.

  1. Wealth Creation

Black Americans need to participate in the wealth creation that technology is stimulating in other communities. We need more black tech millionaires and billionaires who can support our communities with jobs and other forms of investment.

  1. Career Success

Young black Americans need to be part of the unfolding future that Silicon Valley is creating. During my time with NSBE, I saw this clearly in the career choices that young, very well-educated black youth were making. Black parents want great futures for our children just as all other parents do.

  1. Showcase for Excellence

Black genius and intellect needs to demonstrate their value in the technology world just as they have historically in other realms (law: Thurgood Marshall; writing: Toni Morrison or Alice Walker; engineering: Elijah McCoy; dance: Alvin Ailey; music:  Ella Fitgerald, Aretha Franklin (an endless list); social change: Dr. King, Marian Wright Edelman, or Mary McLeod Bethune; science: Dr. Neil deGrasse Tyson or Mae Jamison (first Black woman NASA astronaut)). America is at its best when it takes full advantage of all of the talents of all people.

  1. Philanthropy

Wealthy philanthropists have played key roles in the elevation of black Americans from the historical injustices of slavery and Jim Crow. Black colleges received some of their startup funding from and continue to be supported by the likes of the Rockefeller Foundation, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and Warren Buffett. Silicon Valley billionaires can find some of their most satisfying social investments in historically black colleges and other black organizations that have made the lives of all Americans better.

Email your thoughts to Gerald Harris at gerald@artofquantumplanning.com, and find him on LinkedIn at https://www.linkedin.com/profile/view?id=32841606&trk=nav_responsive_tab_profile.

How to Make SMART Resolutions

karlwreid

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If you’re planning to make resolutions for the new year, you’re not alone. In a recent Huffington Post online poll, 73% of readers set new year’s resolutions, and only a quarter of respondents say that setting goals is “Too much pressure!”

The new year is an optimal time to set new goals. Here are a few tips that, if followed,will  increase the likelihood that you’ll stick to them throughout the year.

“Begin With the End in Mind”

As you set your goals, you should first be clear about your priorities. Steven Covey, the author of Seven Habits of Highly Effective People says that we should “begin with the end in mind.” In other words, in whatever tasks you pursue, by thinking about what you want to accomplish or the outcome you desire, you’ll become more focused and motivated than if you have no clear vision of “the end.” However, rather…

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Hands Up? Sure, But I’m Also Fighting Back!

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This week, I joined thousands in Washington, DC for the “Justice for All” rally and march organized by Rev. Al Sharpton’s National Action Network. With repeated chants of “Black Lives Matter”, “No Justice, No Peace, No Racist Police”, “I Can’t Breathe”, and “Hands Up, Don’t Shoot,” the multicultural and multi-generational show of unity was moving.

Black Lives Matter

The marchers, and others like it in New York and Boston gathered to decry the recent police killings of unarmed black men and boys, the non-indictment decisions of the Grand Juries in Ferguson, Mo. and New York City, and to call on Congress and the Justice Department to make requisite changes to the criminal justice system to ensure that there is indeed justice for all, not just for some.

The rally and march were peaceful and purposeful, and yet watching the sea of humanity repeatedly hold their hands up in a sign of surrender started to rankle me. In my mind, something is wrong with a call to surrender, especially for this cause; especially now.

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I don’t mean to diminish the importance of the “Hands Up” symbolism to the rolling national protest movement. Some witnesses to the Mike Brown shooting testified that his hands were raised to surrender when he was shot multiple times by Officer Darren Wilson in Ferguson after a brief struggle near Wilson’s squad car. (Others say Brown was charging the officer. We’ll never know the truth since the officer was never cross-examined during the Grand Jury proceedings.) The “Hands Up” mantra became a righteous symbol of the national protest movement against police brutality and biased criminal justice.

Full disclosure here. My late father was a New York City police officer who rose to the ranks of detective during the 70s. Public servants like my dad put their lives in danger every day to serve and protect us. But as we’ve seen recently, not all police officers have the best interests of the public in mind. And when police officers have unconscious (and conscious) biases and can’t do their job objectively, their attitudes may have deadly consequences.

Like many other Black parents, my father counseled my brothers and me how to interact with police when stopped and questioned: “Always keep your hands where they can see them”; and “repeat every instruction they give you (‘OK, officer, I’m reaching for my license and registration.’)” His guidance may have saved my life several times when I was pulled over or questioned by police, each time for no other reason except “Driving While Black.”

And yet, while marching, I felt we’re past the time to surrender, even symbolically. For this movement to have a long term impact, it’s time we fight back, not with retaliatory violence, but with action!

Here’s how.

  1. Push Congress to remediate the “Ms. Education” of Black males in school. It’s time to demand that Black males (and females) get quality education in elementary, middle and high schools across the country. Did you know that only 62% of African American 9th graders graduate in four years? What happens to the 38% who don’t graduate right away? According to the Alliance for Excellent Education, high school dropouts are 3.5 times more likely to be arrested in their lifetime. Therefore, by increasing four-year high school graduation rates, we could lower the likelihood that our young boys and men will encounter the criminal justice system.
  2. Require that all schools have access to critical math and science courses. Part of the educational problem is structural. For example, did you know that nearly half of African American high school students don’t have the full complement of math and science courses (4 years each) in their schools? Such an enormous opportunity gap prevents a large segment of young people ineligible to attend their state flagship university, never mind elite private colleges and universities.

But Mike Brown had graduated from high school and he was days away from going to college when he was gunned down. So there’re other structural problems for which to fight:

  1. We need to push Congress to require and fund body and dashboard cameras for law enforcement professionals to hold even the bad apples accountable for their actions.
  2. Let’s require police departments to surface and redress unconscious bias among their officers, while at the same time, weed out the bad apples before they even put on a badge.
  3. And let’s push the Justice Department to require special prosecutors to argue Grand Jury cases involving law enforcement personnel to minimize the reality, or even the perception of favoritism and bias.

I’m thrilled to see the “Justice for All” marches and protests nationwide, sparked by our youth. But I’m done surrendering. Like Tommy Smith and John Carlos’ salute during the 1968 Summer Olympics ceremony, I’ve decided to fight back too.

STEM for All: Why is STEM Good for Everyone?

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I’ve always been curious about how things work. When I was a child, I used to take apart my toys to satisfy a burning desire to understand how the parts integrated, much to the chagrin of my parents, who had spent their hard-earned money on my broken toys scattered about the apartment and house. As I got older, and as I studied education in graduate school, I discovered that my early curiosity (coupled with my engineering education) actually helped to train my mind.

In his book, “A Whole New Mind,” Daniel Pink says that the 21st century global economy will be driven by creative thinkers, those who follow their curiosity to answer questions and solve new problems.

Sound familiar? It should. What Pink describes as “a whole new mind” is the mind of an engineer — and scientist, artist, inventor, entrepreneur and others who make up this “creative class.”

The intellectually curious change the world (think Mark Zuckerberg, Madam C.J. Walker or Jeff Bezos)! And a high-quality education in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics), from grade school through graduate training, cultivates curiosity and prepares all students for today’s world — and the future — even if the student chooses not to become an engineer or scientist.

In short, STEM introduces a new way of thinking, teaching and learning.

A New Way of Thinking

In their book “Academically Adrift,” Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa found that engineering students in the first two years of college showed marked improvements in their critical thinking, analytical reasoning, problem solving and writing skills: universal skills that the 21st century economy requires. And yet, in the same study, 45 percent of the students, many of whom were non-STEM majors, saw no change in these same intellectual skills during the first two years of college. It’s hard to believe that after spending close to $100,000 in tuition and fees, nearly half of all college students showed no improvement in the skills that prepare them for the new world. Still, engineering students are clearly on the glide-path to lead in this brave new world.

A New Way of Teaching

Former civil rights leader Bob Moses, a math teacher par excellence, saw that despite his best traditional teaching efforts, his algebra students were not learning the Cartesian Coordinate System, a topic that is at the foundation of many branches of mathematics. He had an epiphany: to take them on a train ride into Boston, so they could experience inbound and outbound routes, which he translated into positive (plus) and negative (minus) directions. He then linked their experience to the mathematical concepts he was attempting to teach. The Algebra Project was born. Moses used an experiential learning model that David Kolb introduced years before and that many inspired STEM teachers have employed. Rather than the mind-numbing, traditional Theory–>Application–>Demonstration teaching model, Moses and Kolb show that the Demonstration–>Reflection–>Theory–>Application cycle is the most effective approach to learning. Other disciplines have also caught on to this approach. STEM has spawned new and more effective way of teaching, and learning as well.

New Ways of Learning

The most creative teachers allow students time to reflect on what they’ve learned and to demonstrate their learning in novel and creative ways. In NSBE’s SEEK (Summer Engineering Experience for Kids) camps, students work in teams to come up with creative ways to demonstrate what they’ve learned each week. Some give poster presentations. Others put on hilarious skits and mock talk shows, all of which reinforce their learning. I can assure you that you’ve never seen Newton’s Three Laws of Motion like this!

In their book “Cultivating Inquiry-Driven Learners,” Clifton Conrad and Laura Dunek suggest that inspired learners know how to analyze current knowledge critically and use that new knowledge to frame and solve real-world problems. At the end of the day, the world needs our minds to solve new problems.

And the world needs more engineers, don’t you think?

What Can Schools Do NOW to Improve the Success of Black Males and Other Students of Color?

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I’m convinced that there’s no “secret sauce” when it comes to fostering academic success. And yet, only 10% of approximately 350,000 Black males who start high school each year earn a college degree in 10 years according to the UNCF Frederick Patterson Research Institute. We know what needs to be done to improve these outcomes; we just have to have the collective will to execute.

One important step was made on February 27, 2014, when President Obama announced the My Brother’s Keeper Initiative, a new public-private partnership that aims to tackle the systematic problems facing boys and young men of color.

The President’s new high profile effort was rooted in a series of White House conversations in the wake of the Trayvon Martin shooting two years ago about which I’ve written. The new initiative will bring together non-profits, government agencies, and private businesses to endorse and test new programs that are proven to help young men of color get prepared for college, avoid engagement with the criminal justice system, and train for and get good jobs.

Already, foundations and private business have pledged $350M to test, prove and most importantly, to scale what works. Though this amount sounds like a lot, it’ll barely scratch the surface of what’s needed.

That’s why the nation should also focus on “quick wins” to realize almost immediate results. (Do you know that nearly two-thirdsof African American male freshmen fail to earn a degree in six years?) If we hold colleges accountable to what works, I’m convinced that we can begin to turn the tide for a whole sector of the American population.

Dr. Bryant Marks, the Executive Director of the Morehouse Research Institute has been studying Black male initiatives at historically black colleges and universities for the past two years. I’ve worked with Dr. Marks to conduct surveys and campus visits to surface the successful strategies for improving outcomes of Black males on campus. In a recent report, he identified 10 campus initiatives that are certain to effect change. I call these “The Base 10!”

  1.  Living and Learning Communities. Bridge programs, facilitated study groups, freshmen seminars, and common living spaces fosters peer cohesion and accountability, academic readiness, and better relationships with faculty and administrators all of which ease the critical high school-to-college transition.
  2. Mentoring Programs. Formal adult and peer mentoring programs have been shown to increase success and build confidence as students make the transition. These programs should include peer accountability groups to ensure that students set goals and values and hold each other accountable to achieve and uphold them, respectively.
  3. College Success Workshops and Seminars. These classes should assume nothing but rather train students to exercise the “Habits of Mind” necessary to be successful. More than simple time management lessons, these skills- and attitude-based workshops should show students how to work smarter, not just harder in college.
  4. Early Alert Systems. An integrated system where advisors, residential counselors, professors and even roommates are alerted when a student chronically misses class or falls short of expectations on an assignment or exam is essential. When an alert goes out, the targeted student should know without a doubt that people care about his well-being and his education.
  5. High Expectations. There should be a prevailing belief on campus that every student can learn—and learn at a high level—regardless of where they come from, their level of preparation, or their race, gender or national origin. One school with which I was affiliated had “Non-negotiables” posted everywhere, the first of which stated, “We will never give up on you…even if you give up on yourself.” This non-negotiable sent a powerful message of high expectations to every student…and teacher alike.
  6. Developing Institutional Engagement. Students who are engaged on campus stay on campus. Colleges that help students get involved in campus activities such as governance committees and student activities, and progressively develop them as leaders will see more success by students of color.
  7. Learning Style Assessment. Helping students (and faculty) understand the challenges and opportunities associated with their preferred learning style makes for a more informed learner and teacher.
  8. Assessment of Career Skills/Interests. Successful colleges do early career assessments, such as Strong’s Interest Inventory, which match student interests with thousands of professionals who have similar profiles and who thoroughly enjoy their work. Having an ever-emerging outlook on their career future makes for a more purposeful student.
  9. Faculty Development Workshops. Ongoing training for faculty about best pedagogical practices, understanding the impact of unconscious biases on their teaching and grading practices, and learning about racial and ethnic identity creation should be essential components of faculty development that shift the focus from teaching to learning.
  10. Fostering High Academic Self-Efficacy. Successful students are confident that they will flourish in a context (school, math class, humanities courses) or a task (asking a question in class, going to office hours, giving a speech). They make better choices, are more resilient and persistent, and are less susceptible to test and other anxieties. Strong colleges know this and are intentional about by building student self-efficacy through mastery experiences, and introducing role models and mentors.

These research-based practices—the Base 10—are not easy to implement consistently and holistically, but borrowing a translated proverb by Lao-tzu, “A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.” President Obama has issued his call—the first small step. Let’s hold colleges and schools accountable to respond.

Follow me on Twitter at @educator2us and on LinkedIn.

Preparing for Exams

With finals approaching, use this advice to get ready!

karlwreid

Preparing for Exams

Back in an earlier post, I wrote about how I discovered the Deep Dive Learning process in my freshman year in college. This post will summarize a step-by-step approach to preparing for exams and some of the rationale behind it as well. Please note that this is longer than my previous posts because I realize students are entering finals season and splitting this up across several posts may not be timely enough for those who’re in the mix right NOW.
While this approach will mostly benefit those taking quantitative courses, the principles also apply to less computational exams, for example those in English, History, or Sociology. The key here is to “eat the meat and spit out the bones.” In other words, try this process, but ultimately you need to discover an approach that works for you and your learning style. Here we go.

Gather Your Study…

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Our Nation Needs to Fix the Breach in the STEM Pipeline

 

As STEM goes, so goes the country. The global economic leadership of the United States is inextricably linked to advancement in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Experts estimate that as much as 75 percent of measured growth in the US economy is attributable to technological innovation. In addition, the overall U.S. science and technology workforce exceeded 7.4 million workers in 2012 and it will continue to grow significantly through 2018, to an estimated 8.65M STEM workers.[1]

Yet, the pipeline to fill these future jobs is broken. Only 4 percent of 9th graders eventually graduate with STEM degrees 10 years after entering high school. For African Americans students, the yield is between 1 and 2 percent.

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Exacerbating the challenge is the changing face of the educated American workforce. While whites accounted for 71 percent of the college-age population in 1990, they are expected to make up only 58 percent of this population by 2020. Minority students will be a growing part of the population – and of the potential talent pool. But too many of these minority students lack adequate preparation to major in, and pursue careers in the STEM professions.

 

  • African Americans, comprising just over 12 percent of the population earn just 9 percent of all baccalaureate STEM degrees and make up only 3.9 percent of scientists and engineers in the workforce according to the National Science Foundation.

 

  • In 2009, only 11 percent of African American and 14 percent of Latino fourth-graders reached proficiency in science. By the eighth grade, these numbers drop to eight percent for African Americans and 12 percent for Latinos. By the 12th grade, only four percent and eight percent, respectively, are proficient as measured by the National Assessment of Educational Progress.

 

  • Related outcomes for students from low-income backgrounds are similarly discouraging: Only 14 percent of eighth graders eligible for the national school-lunch program were proficient in science.

 

Yet, there is an emerging view that these problems can be solved through scaled investments in more effective teaching and learning in K-12, institutional infrastructure and student skills development support in college, and in a messaging effort that communicates the role of STEM in personal prosperity, community economic development and national competitiveness.

Here are a few national strategies for plugging the leaks in the pipeline:

Investment in Cultivating Inquiry-Driven Learners in K-12

Studies show that performance in fourth grade is an early indicator of life outcomes.

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Attention must be given to inspiring grade and middle school students to pursue careers in STEM by building their self-efficacy in math, and instilling an inquiry-based orientation in science, a concept I borrowed from Clifton Conrad and Laura Dunek about which I’ve previously written.

Here, I’m a huge advocate for the Common Core, the college- and career-ready standards for kindergarten through 12th grade in English language arts/literacy and mathematics that 44 states have adopted. In addition to providing research-based and internationally-benchmarked guidelines about the content that each student should know by grade, the standards most importantly interweave problem-solving, collaboration, communication, and critical-thinking skills into the standards. While it’s foundational to know how to proficiently write a compelling essay and solve algebra equations, preparing students to think and solve problems critically are the 21st century skills vital to regain leadership in STEM. Anything short of that will be failure.

 

Improved Teaching in College

It wasn’t until my sophomore year in college that I was scheduled to take any course that demonstrated how I was to apply what I had learned. Until then, all I saw was theory—long equations that had no practical value at the time. It’s a miracle that I even graduated.

This interminable “theory-first” educational model is broken and should be turned on its head. That’s what David Kolb argued when he and his colleague Ron Fry introduced the Experiential Learning Method.[2] Renowned for his Learning Styles Inventory, Kolb’s theory has proven that teaching is most effective when the following four elements are incorporated beginning with a concrete experience, as illustrated below:

 

Experiential Learning Method

The Saturday Engineering Enrichment and Discovery (SEED) Academy at MIT, a 10-week program for local high school students was built upon this premise, as was Bob Moses’ The Algebra Project. Colleges (and in fact all schools) should take note that Theory First only appeals to certain learning styles. Kolb’s Experiential Learning Method, what I call “theory through the lens of practice” appeals to all types of learners.

 

Targeted Support in College

Engineering students have the most success with bridge programs that level-set admitted freshmen with critical content knowledge. In addition, facilitated study groups challenge and impart essential problem-solving skills. And particularly for women and students of color, science and engineering departments must foster non-competitive learning environments that eliminate the threat of being viewed through the lens of a stereotype and thereby triggering self-defeating attitudes or behaviors. Here, attention must be given to fostering learning climates that develop confidence, building affirming relationships with faculty and among peers, and developing positive identities about their possible future as an engineering or scientist.

 

Plug the Holes

The United States is falling behind its international peers in its ability to produce the necessary scientific and technological talent to meet the workforce demand and to stay competitive in this new global landscape. Only a focused Manhattan Project-type effort to plug the leaky pipeline of talent can achieve the collective impact necessary to turn this trend around. Why? To borrow a phrase from my employer, because “A mind is a terrible thing to waste, but a wonderful thing to invest in.”

 

[1] The STEM Connector, 2012-2013, Annual Report: “Where are the STEM Students” Executive Summary, pg.12. This number (8.65 million) does not reflect people in who are “self-employed” in STEM fields. If “self-employed” is included, the number of people employed in STEM fields in 2012 is 14.9 million, and is projected to reach 15.68 million by 2018.

[2]   Kolb. D. A. and Fry, R. (1975) Toward an applied theory of experiential learning. in C. Cooper (ed.), Theories of Group Process. London: John Wiley.